What is the aim of the review?
Protected area coverage is one of the only global conservation targets achieved under the CBD. Unfortunately, despite the increase in coverage, there is considerable debate over the extent to which protected areas deliver conservation outcomes in terms of species and habitat protection . It has been suggested that many of the worlds protected areas exists only as ‘paper parks’, having no effective management on the ground, and are thus unlikely to deliver benefits for conservation. Whether protected areas are delivering conservation benefits for species and habitats is an essential research question, for policy makers, planners, managers and conservation advocates . Politically, international conservation strategies implemented by both governments and NGOs rely primarily on protected areas to safeguard biological diversity as was confirmed by the new 2020 increased protected area estate targets of the CBD CoP10 in Nagoya, Japan.