Have springs restoration projects in the southwestern United States been effective in restoring hydrology, geomorphology, and invertebrates and plant species composition comparable to natural springs with minimal anthropogenic disturbance? (systematic review)

What is the aim of the review?
Springs, particularly those in arid regions, are vastly more complex, diverse, and productive than those in adjacent uplands; however, at a national and continental scale, springs are among our most threatened ecosystems. Springs are important resources because they are largely non-renewable ecological and cultural resources which provide habitats for a diverse variety of aquatic, wetland, plant and mammal species, many which are endangered or endemic (Anderson et al., 2003; Springer and Stevens, 2009).

This review brings together information on the state of knowledge of arid land springs ecosystem restoration and monitoring, improving the consistency of understanding and monitoring springs ecosystems. Such a synthesis is needed to clarify the present and future integrity of springs ecosystems, and also is needed for improving restoration and monitoring by summarizing the state of knowledge of restoration monitoring efforts.  This review also provides information to help springs ecosystem stewards better prioritize management and restoration actions with generally limited financial resources.

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