Collaboration for Environmental Evidence Critical Appraisal Tool Version 0.1 (Prototype)

Last updated: 19 December 2020

Project summary

We are currently developing a critical appraisal tool for evaluating ‘risk of bias’ (or internal validity) of primary studies assessing effectiveness of interventions or impacts of exposures in environmental management. There are well-known, widely applied risk of bias assessment tools in the health sector known as ‘RoB 2’ and ‘ROBINS-I’ (, but there are currently no such critical appraisal tools in environmental management. We have adapted these existing tools for the environmental sector and here we provide an initial draft of the tool. The tool is still under development and requires initial testing, but it may help environmental evidence synthesists conduct critical appraisal.

If you are not familiar with critical appraisal step, we recommend reading Sections 3.5 ( and 8 ( of CEE Guidelines before you download the tool. The tool can be used or tested in evidence syntheses addressing ‘PICO’ or ‘PECO’ type questions. If you are not familiar with these question types, we recommend reading Section 2 of CEE Guidelines( before you download the tool. Since the tool is designed to evaluate risk of bias (or internal validity), external validity cannot be evaluated with this tool.

The prototype tool is available in Word and Excel files. If you are familiar with Excel, the Excel version should be more user-friendly. Once you have gone through the process, you are welcome to provide feedback via our questionnaire, or you can directly contact us as we wish to publish the tool in an academic journal article in the future.

Download the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence Critical Appraisal Tool version 0.1 (prototype).

Provide feedback via our questionnaire.

Any suggestions and queries (including participation into the development of the tool as a collaborator) can be directed to Ko Konno (Bangor University) at